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How Does An Air conditioning Works?

While some people think that AC gives cool air to room, but this is not true. An AC is not the magical device it uses some physical and chemical phenomena very efficiently to cool the given space. In a nutshell, an AC collects the hot air from the given space or room and leaves cool air to the same space. AC done this process with the help of five major components

1. Evaporator
2. Condenser
3. Compressor
4. Expansion device
5. Refrigerant

Let’s understands these components better before I and show the working principle of an AC.

Components of Air condition

AC installation at home is of two types one window AC and second split AC. Regardless of the type of installation mainly four components are presents:


It is basically the heat exchanger coil. It is responsible to collecting heat through refrigerant from inside of your house and this is where the refrigerant absorbs heat and it changes from liquid to gas. Some of the most common refrigerant gases used in residential air conditioners are R-22 Ad the newer R-410A, both of which are chemically known as hydrochlorofluorocarbons, or HCFCs.


It compresses the hot gaseous refrigerant and making it hotter. It located outside unit of the room or home(in split AC).


The function of the condenser is to condense. It condenses the vaporized refrigerant that comes through the compressor and convert into liquid form and remove the heat from it. It also located in the outside unit of the split AC.

Expansion Valve

It is also known as throttling device which is located between the two sets of coils( between cool coils of the evaporator and hot coil of the condenser). Its function is to keep moving the amount of refrigerant to the evaporator.
As we learn the about components of an AC, now we will look at the working principle of an AC.

Working principle of an AC

Physical chemistry is used to explain the working nature of an AC which uses a refrigerant that transfer from one place to another place in a cyclic manner. AC collects the hot air from the given room with the help of refrigerant and some bunch of coils present inside of an AC and then release cool air.
When we switched on the AC and set the temperature to say 22-degree Celcius. The thermostat present inside of it senses the difference of the temperature of your room and the temperature you have chosen.
The warm air of the room flow through the grille at the base door unit which then flows through some pipes through which refrigerant (i.e cooling fluid) is flowing. The refrigerant absorbs the heat of the warm air and becomes hot gas itself. This is how heat remove from the air when passing through the evaporator. One thing to note that evaporator not only heat, but also remove moisture from the incoming air.
This hot refrigerant gas then passes through the compressor, this compressor compresses the hot refrigerant gas make it hotter and increase its temperature.
This high-temperature refrigerant passes through the condenser which condenses it liquid and removes the heat with the help of metal fins. The refrigerant came to the condenser in a very hot gas form, but quickly it becomes cool liquid. This cool liquid then pass through the fourth component which is expansion valve- tiny hole in the system’s copper tubing. This expansion valve the maintains the flow the flow of this cool liquid refrigerant to the evaporator. This is the place where the whole journey started.
This process repeated over and over again until the AC attain the desired temperature. So, in a nutshell, AC take the incoming warm air and convert it into the cool air and release it back to same space.